The base issuance of CKBytes are rewarded to miners for securing the network, and the reward halves approximately every 4 years until all the base issuance tokens (33.6 billion) are mined out.
How does the CKByte-Halving work?
In order to make the halving plan work as expected, a concept of time called epoch was introduced.
An epoch is a period of time for a set of blocks.
In Nervos, the PoW difficulty changes on a new epoch. All the blocks in the same epoch share the same difficulty target. The difficulty adjustment algorithm aims to stabilize the orphan block rate at 2.5% and the epoch duration at 4 hours.
Epochs per halving is
4 * 365 * (24 / 4) =
8760, and the Nth halving of CKBytes firstly occurs on epoch:
the_Nth_halving_epoch = 8760 * N .
So, The CKByte halving event occurs on the specified epoch, e.g. 8760, 17520.
When will CKByte be halved?
The following table details the schedule for several upcoming CKB halvings and their corresponding base issuance rewards:
|Event||Date||Epoch number||Epoch reward||Block reward(Calculated based on 1800 blocks per epoch)||Daily reward||Total new CKB between events|
|Nervos launches||16 November 2019||0 (genesis epoch)||1,917,808 CKB||1,065 CKB||11,506,849 CKB||16,800,000,000 CKB|
|First halving||Expected November 2023||8,760||958,904 CKB||533 CKB||5,753,424 CKB||8,400,000,000 CKB|
|Second halving||Expected November 2027||17,520||479,452 CKB||266 CKB||2,876,712 CKB||4,200,000,000 CKB|
|3rd halving||Expected November 2031||26,280||239,726 CKB||133 CKB||1,438,356 CKB||2,100,000,000 CKB|
|4th halving||Expected November 2035||35,040||119,863 CKB||67 CKB||719,178 CKB||1,050,000,000 CKB|
|5th having||Expected November 2039||43,800||59,932 CKB||359,589 CKB||525,000,000 CKB||525,000,000 CKB|
|6th having||Expected November 2043||52,560||29,966 CKB||179,794 CKB||262,500,000 CKB||262,500,000 CKB|
|7th having||Expected November 2047||61,320||14,983 CKB||89,897 CKB||131,250,000 CKB||131,250,000 CKB|
|8th having||Expected November 2051||70,080||7,491 CKB||44,948 CKB||65,625,000 CKB||65,625,000 CKB|
|9th having||Expected November 2055||78,840||3,746 CKB||22,474 CKB||32,812,500 CKB||32,812,500 CKB|
|10th having||Expected November 2059||87,600||1,873 CKB||11,237 CKB||16,406,250 CKB||16,406,250 CKB|
⚠️ Note that CKB block rewards include Base (issuance) reward, Secondary (issuance) reward, Commit reward, and Proposal reward:
However, when we are discussing CKB halving, it only relates to Base issuance rewards. Therefore, the block rewards listed in the table only include the portion of rewards from base issuance to help with understanding.