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Nervos CKB will have a halving event every 4 years according to its mechanism, at which time the base issuance rewards will be halved. View countdown

What is Halving?

In the Nervos ecosystem, mining is used to secure the network and distribute tokens in the form of block rewards. A total of 33.6 billion CKB tokens will be created through primary issuance over approximately 84 years to incentivize the miners that secure the network.

Every epoch, a period of approximately 4 hours, a fixed amount of 1,917,808 CKB is introduced. Every 8,760 epochs, a period of approximately 4 years, this amount is cut in half. This event is called a halving, and it is the point where the mining rewards from primary issuance are permanently reduced by 50%. This halving process will continue every 4 years until the year 2103, after which point all block rewards from primary issuance will cease completely.

How Does Halving Work?

In order to make the halving plan work as expected, a concept of time called an epoch was introduced.

An epoch is a period of time for a set of blocks. In Nervos, the PoW difficulty changes with each new epoch. All the blocks in the same epoch share the same difficulty target. The difficulty adjustment algorithm aims to stabilize the orphan block rate at 2.5% and the epoch duration at 4 hours.


Epochs per halving is 4 _ 365 _ (24 / 4) = 8760, and the Nth halving of CKBytes occurs at epoch: 8760 * N.

Why is Halving Significant?

Each time a halving occurs, it causes a sharp decrease in the rewards generated per block. The supply of new CKB entering circulation is lowered, dramatically reducing the rate of inflation. This is important because it creates a shift in the underlying market equilibrium and forces a reevaluation of what is considered fair market value.

Halving events occur on a predetermined issuance schedule that cannot be changed, postponed, or delayed. Investors and community members often look forward to a halving event as something to celebrate since it marks an important milestone in the history of the project.

When Will CKByte Be Halved?

The following table details the schedule for several upcoming CKB halvings and their corresponding base issuance rewards:

EventDateEpoch #Epoch rewardBlock rewardDaily rewardTotal new CKB between events
Nervos launches16 Nov 20190 (genesis)1,917,808 CKB1,065 CKB11,506,849 CKB16,800,000,000 CKB
1st halving19 Nov 20238,760958,904 CKB533 CKB5,753,424 CKB8,400,000,000 CKB
2nd halvingExpected November 202717,520479,452 CKB266 CKB2,876,712 CKB4,200,000,000 CKB
3rd halvingExpected November 203126,280239,726 CKB133 CKB1,438,356 CKB2,100,000,000 CKB
4th halvingExpected November 203535,040119,863 CKB67 CKB719,178 CKB1,050,000,000 CKB
5th halvingExpected November 203943,80059,932 CKB33.5 CKB359,589 CKB525,000,000 CKB
6th halvingExpected November 204352,56029,966 CKB16.75 CKB179,794.5 CKB262,500,000 CKB
7th halvingExpected November 204761,32014,983 CKB8.375 CKB89,897.25 CKB131,250,000 CKB
8th halvingExpected November 205170,0807,491 CKB4.1875 CKB44,948.625 CKB65,625,000 CKB
9th halvingExpected November 205578,8403,746 CKB2.09375 CKB22,474.3125 CKB32,812,500 CKB
10th halvingExpected November 205987,6001,873 CKB1.046875 CKB11,237.15625 CKB16,406,250 CKB

CKB block rewards include the Base (issuance) reward, Secondary (issuance) reward, Commit reward, and Proposal reward:

CKB block rewards include the base reward, secondary reward, commit reward and proposal reward

However, when discussing CKB halving, it only relates to base issuance rewards. Therefore, the block rewards listed in the table only include the portion of rewards from base issuance to help with understanding. :::

Cumulative base issuance amount of CKB